Long before the Catholics, and even before the Muslims, the Romans ruled Córdoba. As capital of the province of Hispania Baetica, the city under the Romans saw centuries of peace and prosperity.
You can see the remnants of this age in various pockets throughout the city today. Entering Córdoba from the south by foot, you might cross the Puente Romano (Roman Bridge). Built in the 1st century BC, it once formed part of the Via Augusta, the route to southern Spain from Rome.
Located near City Hall, you can't miss yet another Roman artifact which springs up out of the city streets: the Roman Temple. Likely dedicated to Augustus Cesar in the 1st century AD, the marble temple is the only structure of its kind that has been unearthed in the city (although likely not the only temple that existed).
Throughout Córdoba, you can also spot the remains of Roman walls. The stone fortress once encircled the western part of the old city, before being expanded east later by the Moors, repaired by the Christians, and then largely demolished during the 19th century to make way for streets.
Other Roman remnants are sprinkled throughout Córdoba, from a cylindrical 1st-century Roman mausoleum located by the once western gate, to various artifacts in the Alcázar de los Reyes Cristianos. Even the Mezquita itself was constructed with Roman ruins.