Genoa's cathedral is dedicated to St. Lawrence – or San Lorenzo in Italian – and there are a few names you might see that all mean this same church. The Genoa Cathedral, St. Lawrence Cathedral, the Genoa Duomo, or the Cattedrale di San Lorenzo – all of those refer to the same place.
Originally founded in the 5th or 6th century, the San Lorenzo Cathedral was built in the early 12th century. It was partly rebuilt in the early 14th century – including the completion of the facade – and there are internal features that have been added since then. Those with a keen eye for architectural styles will no doubt notice the different time periods represented both inside and out.
The Palazzo di Reale, or Royal Palace of Turin, was originally the Bishops Palace in old Turin, when the city became the capital of Savoy. It was taken over by Duke Emmanuel Philbert and became his residence until his death in 1580, at which point his son, Charles Emmanuel I moved in.
Though already large and opulent, the Palace grew in magnificence following the marriage of Charles Emmanuel's son, Victor Amadeus, to French Princess Christine Marie. She is responsible for modernizing the palace to 17th century standards, employing renowned architect Filippo Juvarra. The most famous of his additions is Scala delle Forbici, a magnificient staircase. Christine Marie eventually moved into a different palace, la Palazza Madama, also rebuilt by Juvarra. Today, the palace is a premier example of classic European aristocracy. It houses a museum dedicated to the House of Savoy, and its armory is a point of interest, as it contains a wide variety of historical arms and armor.
One of the most famous historic streets in the center of Genoa is the Via Garibaldi. This street has had a few names over the centuries, but it's always been a fashionable address.
What we know today as Via Garibaldi was first built in the mid-1500s, when it was called Strada Maggiore – or “Great Street.” Later, it became known as “Strada Nuova,” or “New Street.” It was renamed in 1882 for Italy's great revolutionary leader, Giuseppe Garibaldi, and in 2006 the street and the historic palaces on it were added to UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites.
From the time when the Via Garibaldi was first designed and built, it was intended to be a street upon which the wealthy families of Genoa would build their homes. The street was soon lined with palaces, each occupied by a noble family, and many passed down through generations and hundreds of years.
Behind the high altar in the Cathedral of San Giovanni Battista, also known as the Duomo di Torino is the Chapel of the Holy Shroud, containing one of most famous and controversial religious relics in world history.
The Shroud of Turin, as the Holy Shroud is popularly known, or Sacra Sindone, is a piece of linen cloth said to have been laid over the body of Jesus Christ following his crucifixion. It bears the faded image of a bearded, longhaired man who appears to have wounds consistent with Bibilical traditions of those suffered by Christ at his execution.
Whatever the shroud's authenticity, it is certainly old, and its existence has inspired and renewed the faith of innumerable Christians throughout history. Given its importance, the Church has gone to great lengths to preserve it; currently, it is housed in a climate-controlled case filled with a special atmosphere comprised of argon and a little bit of oxygen, and it is rarely displayed.
Most Italian cities have so many busy piazzas it's hard to tell which one is the main square. In Genoa, the Piazza de Ferrari is that main square – and once you're there, it's easy to understand why.
The expansive Piazza de Ferrari sits right in the city center, between the historic district and the more modern part of downtown, and many important buildings face the piazza. Around the square you'll find the Palazzo Ducale (although the main entrance is on another piazza around the corner), the gorgeous former stock exchange building, and the Teatro Carlo Felice - Genoa's opera house.
The Piazza de Ferrari is named for Raffaele de Ferrari, a 19th century Italian nobleman who once lived in a palazzo near the square. His wife was the one who bequeathed the Palazzao Rosso and Palazzo Bianco – once private homes owned by her family – to the city of Genoa upon her death to be used as public museums.
Most cities have iconic buildings that serve as the symbol of the city – the Eiffel Tower, for instance, suggests Paris to even those who have never been there. The city of Turin in northern Italy has such a symbol, but both Turin and its iconic building are just enough off the tourist radar that they aren't quite world famous. This, of course, means you'll be one of the rare people “in the know” when you visit Turin and see the Mole Antonelliana.
The Mole Antonelliana looks a bit like the top of a tower that's missing most of the actual tower. The dome isn't round, but instead the four sides of the dome curve upward toward a spire that shoots up to a height of 550 feet.
Turin's low skyline makes the Mole Antonelliana stand out for its height, but the shape of the building and its tall spire would make it noticeable almost anywhere. The building was built in the late 1800s, and is named for the architect Antonelli.
From the 14th through the 18th centuries, the rulers of Genoa were called doges, and they ruled from the Doge's Palace – the Palazzo Ducale in Italian – in the historic city center. Today, the palace is open to the public as a museum. The Palazzo Ducale was built starting in the 1250s, although the finishing touches on the building weren't complete until the 1530s. The palace once served as both the residence for the ruling doge and the offices from which he would govern the Republic of Genoa. The palace was added to at various points over the years, and partially rebuilt twice (once after a fire in the 1770s).
There are two main entrances to the Palazzo Ducale. The main entrance is on the Piazza Matteotti, and a secondary entry is on the famous Piazza de Ferrari. Today, the palace serves various civil functions. There are regular exhibitions held in the palace, including visiting contemporary art shows, as well as a couple of large halls that are often used for events.
Turin's iconic Mole Antonelliana building is more than just its most recognizable landmark—it's also home to one of the city's top museums. Italy's National Cinema Museum was founded in 1953 with a private collection of film memorabilia. In 2000, the museum was moved to the Mole Antonelliana tower, giving it the title of “tallest museum in the world.”
Pieces in the museum's collection include Darth Vader's mask from “The Empire Strikes Back,” the alien costume from “Aliens,” and a mask from Fellini's “Satyricon.” There are vintage movie posters, film screening rooms, and items collected from movie sets. The museum's library includes more than 12,000 movie reels, 300,000 film posters, 80,000 pictures, and 26,000 books.
The Ligurian town of Portofino is popular with visitors for its pastel-colored buildings, but it's also home to an important protected marine area – the Area Marina Protetta. The site covers just under 350 hectares of the sea off the coast around the whole promontory (not just the town), and was established in 1999. It is known for its diverse sealife, and its protected status helps ensure those populations remain. Different parts of the protected area include Zone A, where everything from boating and anchoring to diving is prohibited, and Zone C, where there are far fewer restrictions on activities. In some places, visitors are more than welcome to swim and even kayak, stand-up paddleboard or dive.
One of the iconic symbols of the city of Genoa is its old lighthouse, commonly called La Lanterna, which still serves as the city's primary lighthouse today.
La Lanterna stands on a hill not far from the city center of Genoa near the Sampierdarena neighborhood. The first lighthouse tower built on this site was erected in roughly 1128, far from what was then the city of Genoa and lit by burning dried wood. The tower was damaged over the years by warring families and by bombs during war, and the lighthouse we see today dates from a major reconstruction in 1543.
The light inside La Lanterna required some form of human involvement until 1913, when the first electric light was installed. The light was fully automated in 1936. The lighthouse tower is nearly 250 feet tall, making it the second tallest masonry lighthouse in the world. It's also one of the world's oldest standing structures.
The first public gardens to be opened in Turin still exist as the Parco del Valentino, one of the city's most popular parks. Opened in 1856, the Parco del Valentino covers more than 123 acres in Turin along the left bank of the Po River. The park includes the Castello del Valentino, the University of Turin's botanical garden, and a replica medieval village – complete with a castle – built for the 1884 Turin International Expo.
The park was once the setting for car races—these were held between 1935 and 1954, all known as the Gran Premo del Valentino.
Turin is home to legendary car makers Fiat and Alfa Romeo, so it's only fitting that it's also home to Italy's National Museum of the Automobile. The Museum of the Automobile (Museo dell'Automobile) was founded in 1932, making it one of the oldest automobile museums in the world. It officially opened in 1960, in the building it still occupies, which was designed specifically for the museum. It was extensively renovated and expanded in 2011. The collection contains nearly 200 cars, including some of the first cars made in Italy – an 1896 Bernardi and an 1899 Fiat – as well as racing cars made by Ferrari and Alfa Romeo. There are cars from eight different countries on display, plus an extensive library on automotive history.
In many cases, the names of notable buildings in Italy can seem arbitrary. With the Palazzo Rosso in Genoa, however, the reason for the name is quite clear as soon as you see it – it is a palace, and it's red.
The Palazzo Rosso was built as a private home in the 1670s for the Brignole-Sale family. They owned the palazzo for 200 years before the last member of the family to live there decided to give it to the city of Genoa. The palace is on Via Garibaldi in the historic city center of Genoa – part of the city that's on the UNESCO World Heritage Site listing – among several other palaces originally built for prominent local families.
Dominating Turin’s Piazza Castello and with the appearance of two buildings uneasily glued together, Palazzo Madama began life as a fortified castle and has a medieval façade looking eastwards that was built by ruling house of Savoy in the 14th century. The later, ornate Baroque addition faces west and was added by the famous architect Filippo Juvarra in the early 18th century at the request of Marie Jeanne of Savoy, who gave her nickname to the palace. Juvarra was appointed court architect by the Savoy dynasty and went on to design much of Turin’s glamorous arcaded face lift in the 1860s. Palazzo Madama also reveals a Roman gate and foundations, medieval towers and a series of courtyards and apartments constructed in Renaissance times.