Karlovy Vary (also known as Carlsbad) is a charming spa town located about two hours west of Prague and full of Art Nouveau buildings and wealthy Russian tourists. Legend has it that Charles IV discovered the spring while out hunting with his dogs and founded the town, hence the name.
The town enjoyed a vogue in the 19th century when all manner of fashionable folk (including Beethoven and Chopin) rolled up to take the medicinal waters. Visitors can still indulge in a number of treatments here, including the drinking of the whiffy spring waters, but most Western visitors prefer to try out Becherovka, the town's signature herbal liqueur.
You can reach Karlovy Vary by train from Prague, but a bus will take about half the time. Get one from Prague's Florenc station.