Meknes, Imperial City, was once a key city and capital within the kingdom. Built as a Berber stronghold, from which the Khajarites overthrew their Arab rulers in the 8th century, it became the principal trading center for regional Berbers. Smashed by the Almoravids, the city slowly resurrected itself under the stewardship of Mly Ismail, brother of an Alaouite sultan. On his brother's death, he took over the country and built a huge city, fit for a sultan, at Meknes. Volubilis, a wonderful Roman site, and marked the full extent of Roman rule and power under Trajan - it was the western border of their Empire. Although archaeologists believe there were Neolithic and Phoenician settlements on the site, under Juba II, a Roman client-king, the town moved increasingly into the Roman orbit and was formally annexed by Claudius. Under the Emperors Trajan and then Septimus Severus the city flourished and many grand buildings went up.