The Via Dolorosa is the path within the Old City of Jerusalem that Jesus is said to have took carrying the cross to his crucifixion. Known in Catholicism as the Stations of the Cross, the entire path is marked on the streets and major landmarks it passes through in order for pilgrims to retrace.
Although the path has changed several times over the course of history, today the main route is taken with 14 stations along the way, as it was done by early Byzantine pilgrims.
Surrounded by ancient stone city walls, it is easy to get lost in the winding alleyways of Old Jerusalem — lost in another time, another place, another world. That is what is so special about the place: outside of being of utmost sacred significance for Jews, Christians and Muslims, the Old City maintains its historic feel and tangible spirituality. The Western Wall, Temple Mount, Dome of the Rock, and the Church of the Holy Sepulchre are all located within its walls. The Via Dolorosa, where Jesus is said to have walked to his crucifixion, can still be traced here. There is both a sense of chaos — with bustling souks and busy streets — as there is a deep sense of calm and peace.
Built by King David in 1004 B.C., the Old City of Jerusalem has one of the most fascinating histories in the world. Its walls were constructed in the 16th century by the Ottomans.
This religious and spiritual destination is one of four historic quarters that make up the famed city of Jerusalem. Travelers seeking a touchstone to the past will find just what they’re after on a visit to this place that dates back to the Roman Empire.
Ancient ruins uncovered by archeologists from Hebrew University are in a handful of museums and parks in the Jewish Quarter, including a 2,200-year-old image of a Temple menorah and portions of the Israelite Tower. A stunning pool built by the Romans was discovered in 2010. Travelers will find this homage to another lifetime filled with terracotta roof tiles, mosaic floors and regal steps. In addition to archeological ruins, visitors can tour several of the other historic and religious sites that are scattered across the Jewish Quarter. The famous Western Wall, several synagogues, a handful of Yeshivas and an abandoned mosque offer insight into the culture and traditions of this diverse city.
The walled Old City of Jerusalem is divided into four major quarters: the Jewish Quarter, the Muslim Quarter, the Armenian Quarter, and the Christian Quarter. The city’s Christian Quarter contains around 40 religious sites holy to Christianity, including the Church of the Holy Sepulchre at its heart. The church is venerated as the site where Jesus was crucified, buried, and resurrected and remains a place of pilgrimage for Christians from all over the world. For many it is regarded as the religion’s holiest site.
Pilgrims often follow the Via Dolorosa, the path Jesus walked to his crucifixion, stopping at shrines and small sites along the way. Many churches, monasteries, schools, and museums are dotted throughout. You’ll also find residences, souvenir shops, cafes, and other pieces of daily life from those presently residing in the area. There is also an iconic, colorful market patched between the stone walls and narrow streets.
In Jesus’ day, the Garden of Gethsemane at the base of the Mount of Olives was an olive grove, and according to some botanists, some of the ancient olive trees still growing in the gardens likely predate Christianity itself. While the word “gethsemane” means “oil press,” the Garden of Gethsemane is much better known for its prominence in New Testament scripture as the site where Jesus was betrayed and arrested after the Last Supper.
In the center of the garden sits the Church of All Nations, a mosaic-covered church built in 1924 by architect Antonio Barluzzi. Within the church sits the Rock of Agony, believed by some to be the place where Jesus wept and prayed for the city of Jerusalem.
Just east of the Old City, separating Jerusalem from the Judean Desert, sits the Mount of Olives, one of the city’s most famous scriptural sites. The famous mountain is referenced in both the Old and New Testaments, first as the escape route David used during his son’s rebellion, and again by the prophets. The New Testament recounts Jesus addressing his pupils from the Mount of Olives.
Apart from its religious importance, the Mount of Olives is historically significant as well. On the lower slopes of the mountain, you’ll find the Jewish cemetery, believed to be the oldest cemetery in the world still in use and burial place of many prominent Jewish figures, including Zechariah and philosopher Nahmanides. The foot of the mountain is also home to the Gardens of Gethsemane, the Church of All Nations and the Russian Orthodox Church of Maria Magdalene.
Perhaps the most significant landmark of the Jewish people and symbol of the Old City of Jerusalem, the Western Wall (or the Wailing Wall) is the last remaining remnant of the Second Temple built by Herod the Great around 19 BCE.
Jewish pilgrims from all around the world visit the site and pray to the embodied spirit of the holy presence while mourning the fall of the temple by kissing the wall and putting notes into its crevices. The plaza in front of the wall is divided into 2 sections, one for men, the other for women and is the staging for various Jewish rituals.
This particular section of the wall is merely 187 feet (57 meters) however the entire wall stretches more than 1,600 ft (488 m), most of which in accessible and hidden within residential Jerusalem.
The Church of All Nations is a prominent Roman Catholic church perched on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. It is also known as the Basilica of Agony, with its walls golden mosaics depicting the suffering of the world as assumed by Jesus. Tradition has it that Jesus kneeled on a rock here in the Garden on Gethsemane prior to his arrest by the Romans. The slab of rock is now encompassed by a circle of iron thorns.
Historically the site of a Byzantine church, it was converted to a basilica in the 4th century by Crusaders. The present stone structure has domes, walls, and pillars built in Byzantine style although built from 1919 to 1924. Its construction was fueled by donations of Catholic communities from all over the world. Symbols of each nation that donated were built into the glass of the church’s ceiling.
The Kidron Valley is known for its stunning views, as well as its historic and religious significance. It’s a destination for travelers seeking a Biblical touchstone, thanks to its starring role in the story of David in the Books of Samuel, Kings and Chronicles, in Orthodox, Jewish, Protestant and Catholic traditions. The valley is also home to hundreds of ancient tombs located near the village of Silwan. It is widely recognized as the main burial ground in the city during historic times. The most significant tombs in the Kidron Valley include the Pillar of Absalom, the Tomb of Benei Hezir and the Tomb of Zechariah. Travelers who explore these tombs on a visit to the valley will gain a deeper understanding of Jerusalem’s culture, history and religious traditions while taking in some truly incredible views.
Sitting halfway up the Mount of Olives, Dominus Flevit is a prominent Franciscan church in Jerusalem. The name translates from Latin to “The Lord Wept,” with the structure shaped like a teardrop to symbolize the tears of Jesus. It is said to mark the spot where Jesus looked out onto Jerusalem and wept, knowing the city was bound to be destroyed.
The site went unmarked until the Crusader era, when a small chapel was built that eventually fell into ruin. The present day structure was built in 1955 by Italian architect Antonio Barluzzi, standing upon centuries of history and ruins — including the Byzantine era monastery and an ancient necropolis. Today the church has a panoramic, often-photographed view of Jerusalem. The window at the altar provides an overlook of the city focused on the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
In the Gospel of John, chapter 5, Jesus is said to have miraculously healed a paralyzed man at the Bethesda Pool. This pool was discovered and excavated during the nineteenth century when the Church of St. Anne, located on the same grounds, was being restored. This public bath was likely used during the first century BC and first century AD. The Romanesque church was built in 1140 by Crusaders at the site where Hannah, mother of Mary, was born. It’s considered one of the best specimens of medieval architecture in Israel and is famous for its astounding acoustics. Stick around for a few minutes and you’ll often hear hymns being sung.
The stunning white and gray façade of St. Anne’s Church is one of the best-preserved Crusader churches in Jerusalem. It’s also recognized as the site of the birthplace of the Virgin Mary, and the original home of Jesus’s maternal grandparents.
This fortress-like structure was built around 450. Religious pilgrims journey to this destination, which provides quiet respite from the energy of the Muslim Quarter, for prayer and contemplation. The uniquely asymmetrical building offers up incredible acoustics, and visitors who are lucky enough to catch the small local choir performing will find their voices sound like a massive crowd inside the halls of the Church of St Anne.
This chapel on Jerusalem’s Mount of Olives is a sacred site for both Christians and Muslims. It claims to be the oldest of three churches located on the Mount. Though Jesus is believed to have taken his final steps before ascending to heaven here (there is even a footprint impression on a stone slab that is believed to be from Jesus’s right foot), the site has since been converted to a mosque, after being captured by the Muslim sultan Saladin in the 10th century. It remains under the control of an Islamic group, though all faiths are welcome.
Many believe Jesus’s Assumption, 40 days after his resurrection, had taken place inside a cave. Nonetheless a church was built in this spot in the 4th century. Its exterior is marked by archways and slim marble columns, built in a Romaneque style.
Set within the Christian Quarter of the old walled city of Jerusalem – which it itself the larger World Heritage Site -- this church is considered by many Christians to be the site of Jesus’ crucifixion, burial and resurrection. A popular stop on the pilgrimage trail since the 4th century, the church itself is now the headquarters of the Greek Orthodox Church.
Commissioned between 325-6 by Emperor Constantine I, and his mother, Saint Helena, the church was built on the former site of a temple dedicated to Aphrodite, the Greek goddess of love and war; initial excavations for this construction, according to Helena, revealed the Holy Sepulchre, or the tomb of Jesus. During a Muslim uprising in 1009, the church was razed to the ground, an act that provoked Europe to begin the Crusades. It was eventually rebuilt via collaboration between the Muslims and Byzantines, and additions were later made by Crusaders, Franciscan monks, Greek Orthodox and Armenian Apostolic elders.
Jerusalem’s Armenian Quarter dates back to the fourth century and remains the oldest Armenian diaspora on earth. Centered around the St. James Monastery, the quarter is ripe with religious, cultural and historical monuments that make it worthy of a visit.
Travelers can explore the Cathedral of St. James and the halls of St. Toros Church—two of the oldest structures in the quarter, or wander the grounds of Alex and Marie Manoogian Seminary—a modern school for those studying holy traditions. The Helen and Edward Mardigian Museum of Armenian Art and Culture highlights the artistic contributions of Armenians and the St. Toros Manuscript Library is home to the second-largest collection of Armenian manuscripts in the world.
As both the oldest and most famous Islamic shrine in the world, the Dome of the Rock is one of the most sought pilgrimage destinations in the world. Constructed on top of the site of the Second Jewish Temple around 690 CE, its historical and religious value is unprecedented.
The exterior detail of the dome is in the shape of a Byzantine martyrium, built for the purpose of housing holy relics. It is also jacketed in over 100,000 melted Dinar gold coins, covering the entire done and making it a gem of middle Byzantine art. The Dome of the Rock’s famous wooden dome has a diameter of about 60 feet (20 meters) and is mounted on a drum consisting of 16 piers and columns circularly placed beneath. The entire shrine has a 66.27 ft (20.20 m) diameter by 67.19 ft (20.48 m) in width.
The Temple Mount ("Haram ash-Sharif" in Arabic) is an elevated plateau located in the Old City of Jerusalem that houses some the most important structures and relics in the history of religion, including Dome of the Rock, the retaining wall of Herod’s temple, the Western Wall, and one the oldest and most beautiful mosques in the world, Al-Aqsa Mosque.
In Judaism, the area is considered the center of the world, and the point from which all humanity originated. For Muslims, the mount carries a similar significance, as the location where Muhammad ascended to heaven.
Although the area has been under Israeli sovereignty since the Six-Day War, the Temple Mount is still controlled by the Islamic Waqf, making it a high tension point in the Middle East.
The remains of Israel’s famous King David sit on the holy site of Mount Zion. Pilgrims flock to pay their respects to the Old Testament king who is credited with writing many of the Psalms. At nearly 1,000 years old, it is highly debated whether or not King David is actually buried here. Nonetheless, the place remains highly significant, particularly to Jews. Before the state of Israel was founded, Jews did not have access to the Western Wall (Wailing Wall) and would instead visit the Tomb of David to pray.
The tomb can be seen on the ground floor of what remains of the Byzantine church Hagia Zion. It is estimated that parts of the structure date back to the time of the Crusaders. Men and women must visit the stone tomb separately, though members of all faiths are welcome.
Bursting at the seams with produce, nuts, seeds, spices, wines, meats and cheeses, baked goods, fish, housewares and clothing, Mahane Yehuda Market, informally called The Shuk, teems with locals and tourists who come for a bargain or simply to take in the frenetic atmosphere. The history of the market dates back to the Ottoman Period, when locals began selling produce there in the early 20th century. It soon expanded into an organized market thanks to its convenient, centralized location. The local government attempted to add much-needed infrastructure — proper sewage, running water and garbage disposal to start — to the market during the British Mandate period, but it wasn’t until the 1930s that conditions began to improve. Hungry travelers will find plenty of street food stands in and around the Mahane Yehuda Market, including some of Jerusalem’s best burekas. The market also offers a Shuk Bites card, which includes a self-guided tour map of the market.
It is still possible to visit the supposed site of the Last Supper, known to some as the “Cenacle” (Latin for ‘dining room’) and also the “Upper Room.” The Last Supper is the Passover meal Jesus and his disciples shared the night before his death. The New Testament of the Bible writes that the Apostles gathered in the upper room here to pray after Jesus’s ascension into heaven.
The room then became a gathering spot for first-century Judeo-Christians. Some consider it “the first ever Christian church.” The room became known as the Church of the Apostles after it was spared in the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 AD. The stone structure that now stands was built by the Crusaders in the 12th century, though parts of the original wall can still be seen. The great hall is divided into three naves by large Romanesque pillars, imbued with a true sense of Biblical history.