The Neue Wache memorial in Berlin was built between 1816 and 1818. It was designed by Karl Friedrich Schinkel as a memorial to those who had lost their lives in the Napoleonic wars. The Royal Guard was stationed at the memorial from 1818 to 1918. Later it became a memorial to the victims of World War I, but during World War II it was severely damaged by bombings. It was rebuilt in 1960 as a memorial to the victims of Fascism and Militarism and housed an eternal flame. In the center of the memorial site is a large sculpture called “Mother with her Dead Son” by Käthe Kollwitz.
In 1969 a new element was incorporated into the memorial. The remains of an unknown soldier and an unknown concentration camp prisoner were buried there with earth taken from the battlefields of World War II and from concentration camps. Neue Wache became the Central Memorial of the Federal Republic of Germany for the Victims of War and Tyranny after Germany reunification.