Neuschwanstein Castle was commissioned as the private refuge for Ludwig II of Bavaria, but opened to the public immediately after his death in 1886. Now recognizable as the inspiration for Disney's Sleeping Beauty Castle, Neuschwanstein is one of the most popular castles in Europe. The fairytale charm of Neuschwanstein Castle is also felt from the idyllic scenery of the Bavarian Alps. During the winter, some of the best views of the snow-capped mountains can be seen from the palace grounds.
The picture cycles in the castle were inspired by the operas of Richard Wagner, to whom the king dedicated the castle, and the corresponding medieval legends from his works. The throne room is magnificently decorated with frescos of angels, ironically the king died before the actual throne was built. Despite the medieval motif of the decor, the castle was actually outfitted with latest technology of the time with running water and central heating.
Located at the western entrance to the exquisite Hofgarten gardens, the Odeonsplatz is one of central Munich’s largest public squares, notable for its distinct Italian-style architecture. Taking its name from the 19th century Odeon Concert Hall that once stood at the head of the square (the remains of the building now form part of a government office block), the space still retains its creative streak, hosting a number of annual concerts, parades and city celebrations. At the top of the list is the Odeonsplatz Classical Evening, a grand open-air event held each July and drawing crowds of over 16,000 to watch performances by the prestigious Bavarian Radio Symphony Orchestra, the Munich Philharmonic Orchestra and other world renowned classical acts.
Even if you don’t catch the square at its most atmospheric, the Odeonsplatz still offers a dramatic starting point to city walking tours.
The Königssee Valley lies in the Bavarian Alps and its lake forms part of the Berchtesgaden National Park. At five miles (7.5 km) long and just 1.5 miles (1.7 km) wide wide, the serene, crystal-clear waters of the lake are the deepest in Germany. Königssee is encircled by lush Alpine valleys and snow-capped mountains – the highest of these is Mount Watzmann, which towers over the lake at 5,900 ft (1,800 m). The picture-perfect Alpine village of Schönau am Königssee sits at the head of the lake and in summer hundreds of day trippers pour in daily. The lake is popular for swimming in the pristine Alpine waters or pottering around in electric boats. The most popular lake tour is to the squat, rotund pilgrimage chapel of St Bartholomew, topped with dark-red onion domes and standing on a little promontory lapped by water. Next-door is the former hunting lodge of the Bavarian kings, now the quality restaurant Fischerstüberl and a lovely spot for eating lunch looking over the lake.
Where can you find the best gourmet Bavarian delights? Munich's Victuals Market, Viktualienmarkt in German, is the place to find exotic fruits, fresh vegetables, artisan cheeses, delicious hams, honey, and truffles.
Many of the market stalls in the Viktualienmarkt have been family-run for generations, and although the gourmet food featured here also means gourmet prices, you would be hard pressed to find better quality culinary delicacies. While in Munich, the Viktualienmarkt is the best place to shop for delicious Bavarian food to make for a picnic lunch at a nearby park.
Famous for his delicate and anatomically precise etchings, woodcuts and prints, Albrecht Dürer was a Northern Renaissance artist who lived all his life in Nuremberg between 1471 and 1528. During the 15th and 16th centuries, the city became one of Germany’s most successful commercial centers and also the focus of a great artistic flowering. Dürer was at the heart of this creative movement, visiting the great Renaissance cities of Italy, regularly attending courts of European royalty and revolutionizing printmaking. His iconic works include The Apocalypse, a number of self-portraits, books on the human anatomy and many sublime animal prints as well as friezes for civic halls in Nuremberg and altar pieces in Prague.
The Albrecht Dürer House is a fachwerkhaus, a half-timbered townhouse with a steep wooden roof and of an architectural style seen all over Bavaria.
The former royal palace of the Bavarian monarch, the Munich Residenz is the largest city palace in Germany and is open to visitors to see its spectacularly adorned rooms and royal collections. The complex of buildings in the Munich Residenz contains 10 courtyards and the museum displays 130 rooms. The three main parts of the Residenz are the Königsbau, the Alte Residenz, and the Festsaalbau, which is also home to the Cuvillies Theatre.
Get a feel for palace life in the Residenz museum which features the collections of porcelain, silver, paintings, and classical antiquities amassed by the Wittelsbach monarchs. The Antiquarium's Renaissance collections is especially breath-taking. Step outside the elaborately decorated rooms to the beautiful Court Garden or check out the Treasury (Schatzkammer) for a display of the royal jewels, gold objects, and ivory.
Königsplatz was initially built to serve the urban notions of King Ludwig I, who wished to integrate culture, administration, Christianity and Bavarian military in one massive green space. The king opted for a European Neoclassic style based on the Acropolis in Athens. He even had two museums built in the same style; first was the Glyptothek, where he could house his sprawling collection of Greek and Roman sculptures, and second, the Bavarian State Collection of Antiques, which contains Greek, Etruscan and Roman artifacts. King Ludwig I also commissioned the Propylaea, an imposing and austere gate which served as a memorial to his son, the Bavarian prince Otto of Greece.
Despite this architectural and urban prowess, the square is now infamous for being the place where the Nazi party held marches and mass rallies during the Holocaust. In fact, the national headquarters of the Nazi party, the Brown House, was located on Brienner Straße just off the square.
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The oldest church in Munich, St. Peter's Church, or Peterskirche, is a Roman Catholic establishment built in the 12th century in the Bavarian Romanesque style. The interior of the church features the magnificent Mariahilf-Altar, Gothic paintings & sculptures, and a ceiling fresco. But even these beautiful works of art can't top the bizarre gem-studded skeleton of St. Mundita, who stares at visitors with false eyes and jewelled teeth.
From the spire of "Old Peter", as the church is known to the locals, are spectacular views of the oldest part of Munich. Remember to check the colored rings at the bottom, a white ring means the Alps are visible, making the hike to the top even more worthwhile. Although the spire was almost completely destroyed during World War II, it was fully restored with the traditional architecture.
Which landmark particularly stands out in Munich's skyline? That would be the Cathedral of Our Blessed Lady or Frauenkirche, the church featuring two onion-shaped domes on top of twin towers that reach 99 meters (325 feet). But it's not just the church's architecture that makes it stand out, by law no other tower can be taller or obstruct the view of this symbolic Bavarian building.
Near the entrance of the catherdal is the famous "devil's footprint". According to legend, the devil stomped his foot at this spot when he thought the architect had forgotten to put any windows in the church, before realizing the illusion. Enjoy panoramic views from the south tower and the art of Erasmus Grasser, Jan Polack, and Hans Krumpper that decorate the interior of Frauenkirche.
Dachau Concentration Camp was the first of its kind opened in Germany by the Nazi government in 1933, and it served as a model for later concentration camps. Designed to hold Jews, political prisoners, and other "undesirables," the camp is now a memorial to the more than 40,000 people who died and over 200,000 who were imprisoned here during the Nazi regime. The memorial was established in 1965, 20 years after Dachau was liberated by American forces.
An English documentary of Dachau plays in the museum part of the memorial at 11:30 am, 2 pm, and 3:30 pm and the "Path of the Prisoners" exhibit sheds light on the lives of those in the concentration camp. Although a sobering excursion, many visitors find the trip extremely moving and informative about the Holocaust.
The former court garden of the Residenz Palace, Munich’s Hofgarten was originally laid out in 1613, characterized by its mulberry tree-lined walkways, ornamental fountains and fruit orchard. A large portion of the formal gardens were restored or redesigned post-WWII, but the central pavilion survived, a domed temple designed by Heinrich Schön the Elder in 1615 and topped with a bronze figure of Tellus Bavarica, the symbol of Bavaria.
Today, the Hofgarten remains one of the city’s most tranquil spots, providing welcome respite from the sightseeing trail and making a popular picnic spot for both locals and tourists. Flanked by 19th century arched arcades, the garden retains much of its Italian Renaissance style, with colorful flowerbeds, manicured lawns and painstakingly restored water features.
Munich’s gigantic Deutsches Museum is the kind of museum that begs for multiple visits and as one of the world’s largest science and technology museums, you could easily spend an entire weekend taking in its vast permanent collection. Opening its doors in 1925, the museum sits on a specially constructed river island, reached by bridge from the mainland.
Famous for its interactive exhibitions, inventive displays and impressive collection of artifacts, the Deutsches Museum succeeds in its quest to make science fun and accessible to all ages and interests. Exhibitions cover topics like transport, communication, energy and natural science, with interactive elements including a series of giant musical instruments to play, model coal and salt mines, glass-blowing and paper-making demonstrations and an authentic space laboratory. There’s even a Kid’s Kingdom, where a child-sized mouse wheel and a real fire engine will keep the kids entertained.
Housed in the oldest town house in Munich, the Beer and Oktoberfest Museum features permanent exhibitions on topics ranging from the history of beer to the Bavarian monks’ purity laws and the unique quality of Munich’s beer. As for the story of Oktoberfest, on the upper floor of the museum you’ll learn about its beginnings as a national festival for the 1810 wedding of King Luis to Princess Teresa, right through to today’s celebration — it’s the largest beer festival in the world attended by some 6 million people every year.
You’ll see photos and illustrations, exhibits of brewery and beer-related memorabilia, including original beer mugs from the early years of Oktoberfest. A 12-minute documentary on the evolution of Bavarian beer-making also plays in the small cinema. And as you make your way round the exhibits, check out the building’s original wooden beam and restored murals — they date all the way back to 1340.
Enclosing Munich's central square Marienplatz, the Old Town Hall, Altes Rathaus in German, serves as the center for city council activity for the historic city. The Old Town Hall is also known for its architechture style change from Baroque to Gothic after the structure was bombed during World War II.
The interior is a masterpiece of medieval design with golden stairs, decorated beams, and a frieze of Munich's multiple coats of arms. The Grand Hall is decorated with the figures of Erasmus Grasser's Marisco Dancers. The tower of the Old Town Hall is now home to the Toy museum, a childhood collection by Ivan Steiger.
With soaring mountain peaks, vast lakes and forested slopes punctuated by enchanting castles and traditional alpine villages, the Bavarian Alps offer some of Germany’s most spectacular scenery. Stretching along the Austrian border, the Alps dominate the landscape of Southern Germany and a trip into the mountains is simply inevitable for anyone exploring Bavaria.
Highlights of the Bavarian Alps include Füssen, a lively town at the start of the famous Romantic Road tourist trail; the historic village of Oberammergau, where the world-renowned Passion Play is held each decade; the German Alpine Road, a scenic tourist trail running from Lake Constance to Berchtesgaden; and many of Ludwig II’s most celebrated castles, including the fairytale-inspired Neuschwanstein.
Feldherrnhalle, or Field Marshals' Hall, is a monument in Munich that was built between 1841 and 1844. It was built in an Italian style and modeled after the Loggia dei Lanzi in Florence. It is located on Odeonsplatz at the former site of one of the city's main gates, Schwabinger Tor. The monument was built as a tribute to the Bavarian army that fought in the Franco-Prussian War and features bronze statues of some of the most important generals of Bavaria. In addition there are two lions on the steps. One is growling towards the Residenz Palace, the other is keeping its mouth shut towards the church.
In 1923, Hitler supporters began an illegal march down Ludwigstrasse towards Feldherrnhalle to start a people's revolution against the Bavarian state. Police ordered them to stop, and when they did not, the police opened fire killing 16 marchers as well as four police officers. Hitler was arrested and served a short term in prison.
Home to the city’s two leading football teams, FC Bayern and TSV 1860, Munich’s Allianz Arena is one of Germany’s largest and most iconic sports stadiums. The award winning building, designed by Swiss architects Herzog and de Meuron, was created as a vision of the future and its unique appearance has been likened to a giant inflatable boat or a huge white car tire. Most spectacular is its extraordinary façade, crafted from illuminated air cushions that change color to reflect the team in residence and create a striking visual in the night sky.
The 66,000-seat stadium opened in 2005 and quickly earned itself acclaim within the international football community, hosting events like the 2006 World Cup Opening Ceremony, the 2006 FIFA World Cup semi-finals and the 2012 UEFA Champions League Final. As well as attending home games and international matches at the stadium, fans can also tour the arena, gaining access to the dressing rooms and Players’ tunnel.
The Bavarian State Opera is one of the world’s leading opera houses, with over 400 performances and 600,000 visitors yearly. Its history spans over three centuries and helped shape Munich as we know it today, a culture-savvy metropolis with unparalleled elegance and flair. Thanks to a controversial yet deep friendship with King Ludwig II, Richard Wagner himself premiered many of his music dramas (including The Valkyrie, The Master-Singers of Nuremberg, The Fairies, The Rhinegold, and Tristan and Isolde) at the Bavarian State Opera, which at the time – and arguably still is to this day – was considered the limelight of music in Europe. Nowadays, over 30 different operas, recitals, ballets, and concerts are staged every season in the splendid original Rococo Cuvilliés-Theater, the largest of its kind in Germany and perhaps the most spectacular in all of Europe. This is also where the Munich Opera Festival, the most important and acclaimed opera festival in the world, takes places.
The House of the Arts, or Haus der Kunst in German, is an art museum in Munich that was originally founded by Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in 1937. It originally housed Hitler's vision of what great German art was, and the exhibits were folk art displaying Nazi ideals. The museum's purpose has changed several times since the end of World War II, but since 2003 the museum has been dedicated almost exclusively to contemporary art. The Archive Gallery, the museum's permanent exhibition, displays art, photography, and other items that explore the museum's turbulent history.
Other exhibitions in the museum come from contemporary artists whose works include painting, drawing, photography, video, installations and more. Aside from the exhibitions, the museum also focuses on education and research. The House of the Arts holds special events, kids' and youth programs, and tours.
An art museum in the Kunstareal district, the Old Pinakothek, or Alte Pinakothek, is one of the oldest galleries in the world. It houses famous collections of the old master paintings from the 14th through 18th centuries. More then 800 works from the premier European painters, German, Italian, and Dutch alike, are all on display in the galleries. One gallery was specifically designed to showcase Rubens's masterpiece, Last Judgment - one of the largest canvases ever painted.
Explore the development of painting from the Middle Ages to the Rococo era, compare artistic styles, or simply admire the masterpieces at the Alte Pinakothek. This museum boasts quite an impressive list of artists under its roof, from Dürer to Raphael, Botticelli to Titian, and Rembrandt to Velasquez, the Alte Pinakothek could have an art history book devoted entirely to its vast collection.
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